Services

/Services
Services 2017-07-05T14:08:21+00:00

For every case, Dr. Niederman approaches the animal with two lenses: dental and nutritional. The goal(s) vary depending upon the horse’s age:

Horses Less Than 5 Years Old

Dental Focus

Goals:

  • Monitor eruption of both deciduous (baby) and permanent teeth.
  • Watch alignment/ respective growth of upper and lower jaws.
[see Dental Education/Dental Anatomy Section for more details]

Nutritional Focus

Diet should

  • Support slow, steady growth of skeleton and jaws (so there is room for the developing teeth)
  • Be balanced
  • Be fed by weight, not volume

Horse’s body weight, body condition (BCS) and topline evaluation score (TES) should be routinely assessed.


Horses Between 5-20 Years Old

Dental Focus

Goals:

  • Relieve pain
  • Maintain proper bite alignment
  • Support the health and longevity of the dental arcades.
  • Identify and educate client on ongoing age related loss on chewing surface.

[see Solutions Section for more details]

Nutritional Focus

Diet should

  • Allow maintenance of an ideal body condition score (BCS) and topline evaluation score (TES)
  • Be adjusted based on horse’s ability to chew long stem hay
  • Be balanced,
  • Be appropriate for horse’s work,
  • Be fed by weight, not volume.

Horse’s body weight, body condition (BCS) and topline evaluation score (TES) should be routinely assessed.


Horses Older than 20 Years Old

Dental Focus

Goals:

  • Relieve pain
  • Identify and educate client on ongoing age related loss of chewing surface.

[refer to 4th item in Solutions Section that illustrates the normal loss of chewing ability]

Nutritional Focus

Diet should:

  • Be adjusted based on horse’s ability to chew long stem hay [ie. Introduce chopped hay, pellet alternatives] to prevent choke and impactions.
  • Be balanced,
  • Be appropriate for horse’s work,
  • Allow maintenance of an ideal body condition score (BCS) and topline evaluation score (TES)
  • Be fed by weight, not volume.

Horse’s body weight, body condition (BCS) and topline evaluation score (TES) should be routinely assessed.

Dr. Niederman offers a complete range of dental services:

  • Floating: removal of commonly found sharp edges on the outside of the upper and the inside of the lower cheek teeth.
  • Occlusal adjustment: [odontoplasty]: correction of cheek teeth and incisor malocclusions [hooks, ramps, steps, waves].
  • Wolf teeth extraction.
  • Deciduous [baby] and permanent incisor and cheek teeth extraction.
  • Restoration of appropriate incisor fractures.
  • Periodontal disease treatment [odontoplasty; curettage].
  • Clinical and radiographic evaluation and treatment planning for all fractured teeth.
  • Digital radiography of all teeth: x-rays taken of the horse in the stock are developed into digital images in the truck, allowing for immediate analysis and treatment planning.

The services provided often depend on the age of the horse:


Horses Less than 5 years of age

  • Jaw alignment assessment: to detect presence of under/over bites; under/overjets. [This evaluation should initially be done when the foal is less than 6 months of age].
  • Floating: removal of sharp enamel points on outside of the upper and the inside of the lower cheek teeth.
  • Occlusal adjustment[odontoplasty]: correction of cheek teeth and incisor malocclusions that may occur during permanent teeth eruption.
  • “Cap” extraction: removal of any persistent deciduous [baby] incisors or cheek teeth [premolars].
  • Wolf teeth extraction.
  • Periodontal pocket cleaning and treatment.
  • Clinical and radiographic evaluation and treatment planning for all fractured teeth.

Horses between 5-20 years of age

  • Floating: removal of sharp enamel points on outside of the upper and the inside of the lower cheek teeth.
  • Occlusal adjustment [odontoplasty]: correction of cheek teeth and incisor malocclusions that may occur as a result of the horse’s chewing pattern.
  • Periodontal pocket cleaning and treatment.
  • Canine and incisor tartar removal.
  • Clinical and radiographic evaluation and treatment planning for all fractured teeth.
  • Restoration of incisor fractures.

Horses older than 20 years of age

  • Floating: removal of sharp enamel points on outside of the upper and the inside of the lower cheek teeth.
  • Loose [mobile] teeth extraction.
  • Clinical and radiographic evaluation and treatment planning for all fractured teeth.
  • Periodontal pocket cleaning and treatment.
  • Canine and incisor tartar removal.
  • Diet Analysis and consultation.

the exam

Dr. Niederman travels with a portable horse stock pulled behind her truck so she can set up her mobile dental clinic in most locations. The stock provides a safe working environment for her, the horse and the owner. Dr. Niederman uses pneumatic dental instruments for all dental corrections. All horses are sedated to 1) facilitate a safe and complete examination of the horse’s mouth and 2) allow the horse to be more relaxed while dental corrections are made. Please watch the photographic tour above of the routine dental examination procedure to get a better idea of the steps involved.

Dental Record

All examination findings are summarized onto a computerized dental record. This record includes both a written and a schematic description of the dental abnormalities found and the subsequent corrections made.

Review of Nutritional Principles: Best for owners with horses in ideal body weight.

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  • Owner learns how much they are feeding by weight and how to monitor their horse going forward.
  • Includes how to:
    • Feed by weight using a portable scale.
    • Obtain body weight using weight tape [Weight tape dispensed for future use].
  • Determine:
    • Body condition score [BCS].
    • Topline evaluation score [TES].

Reference guides provided for continued use.
No follow-up.


 

hayconsult

Evaluation of Current Diet: Best for owners who want their horse to gain or lose weight and who do not need any follow up

  • Owner learns how much to feed to achieve the goal and how to monitor going forward.
  • Includes:
    • Review of nutritional principles (see above).
    • Evaluation of current diet and delivery methods.
      • All feeds (hay, feed) examined and amounts weighed.
      • Hay analysis strongly recommended since this is a large and critical part of the horse’s diet.
    • Feeding Recommendations completed at time of visit.
    • Electronic summary sent to client after visit.

No follow-up
No samples taken.


Evaluation of Current Diet with Follow up: Best for owners who want their horse to gain or lose weight and who want follow up.

  • The follow up will allow the horse’s body condition to be assessed to ensure that the goal is reached.
  • Includes:
    • Review of nutritional principles (see above).
    • Evaluation of current diet and delivery methods.
      • All feeds (hay, feed) examined and amounts weighed.
      • Hay analysis strongly recommended since this is a large and critical part of the horse’s diet.
    • Feeding Recommendations completed at time of visit.
    • Electronic summary and phone consult provided once hay analysis is complete.
    • Follow up consists of weekly checks by email or text and will include sharing of photos so:
      • Body condition changes can be closely monitored.
      • Manure quality and quantity can be assessed.
      • Feeding recommendations can be adjusted as needed.
  • A follow up on site visit can be arranged.

Hay Analysis only:

  • Basic: Includes the following parameters: DM, CP, Heat Damaged Protein, Est. Lysine, Fat, Ash, ADF, NDF, NFC, RFV, Lignin, Ca, P, Mg, K, Na, Cl, S, WSC/ESC/Starch, Equine DE
  • Advanced: Includes Basic parameters (see above) plus Cu, Mn, Mo, Fe. Zn

All consults start with a Complete Oral Exam Under Sedation.  This is especially important in the geriatric horse so Dr. Niederman can determine how well your horse can still chew regular long stem hay.

For example, meet Tom, a 26-year-old TB gelding who was examined because of continued weight loss.

Picture A is Tom at the time of the initial examination. Tom had a:

  • Under Body condition score [BCS] of 1+/5 [The body condition scoring is a system where a horse is ranked from 1-9 on its level of fatness. A horse with a BCS of one is too thin while a horse with a BCS of 9 is too fat. The ideal is BCS of 5].
  • Topline evaluation score [TES] of D/D [This evaluation assesses the amino acid status and muscle quality along the topline. It is done by subjectively measuring the musculature along the spine and giving it a grade of A (when there is adequate muscle coverage along the entire spine), or B, C, or D if there is poor muscle coverage along any section of the spine from the withers back.

Picture B shows the appearance of Tom’s mouth when first examined.  Due to his age, all of his cheek teeth were worn so he had completely lost the ability to chew long stem hay.

  • With this information, the nutritional plan was to
    • switch his diet to a high fat senior feed which Tom does not have to chew to safely swallow
    • feed him more frequently so the senior diet more closely met his total caloric needs to both maintain and gain weight. There was little grass present to graze and Tom could no longer eat the hay within the round bale.

The owner wanted the follow up since she had been unsuccessful in getting him to gain weight in the past.

  • The follow up consisted of
    • Using weekly photos to access changes in body condition
    • Monitoring manure quality and quantity to make sure Tom’s gastrointestinal tract was adapting properly to the feed changes
    • Adjusting initial feeding recommendations as needed.

Picture C is Tom three months after the initial consult.